Pyrroloquinoline quinone (abbreviated PQQ) was first discovered by the Norwegian biochemist, Jens G. Hauge in 1964 as an important cofactor in metabolic processes in bacteria. The microbiologists, C. Anthony and L. J. Zatman, recognised in 1967 that this previously unknown factor was also significant with regard to the breakdown of alcohol. This is why they gave the substance the name methoxatin. Approximately 15 years later, the biologist S. A. Salisbury, along with his colleagues, were successful in isolating this substance from certain microorganisms and determining its exact chemical structure. However, it was not until 2003 that the work group of the Japanese brain researcher Tadafumi Kato discovered that this substance also occurs in rodents and other mammals, including humans.
It is assumed that PQQ has to do with an important redox cofactor that can be classified as a new B-vitamin, such as niacin or riboflavin for example. The main function of this new vitamin is the regulation of the metabolism of the amino acid lysine.
Its classification as a vitamin has been questioned for long time; however, today scientists agree that the substance PQQ is an essential vitamin. Thereby, 55 years after the discovery of the last vitamin, vitamin B12 in 1948, a new substance was added to the vitamin family in 2003.
Support has been provided to show that PQQis truly another vitamin due to both its structural similarity to vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 and the fact that PQQ cannot be independently formed by the majority of organisms and has to be attained via dietary intake. Its location in the mitochondria should stimulate the formation of new cellular power sources. PQQ is located directly at the place where free radicals are formed in the mitochondria and so it can intercept these. Furthermore, it provides for the activation of important mitochondrial repair mechanisms. It is a strong antioxidant that is much more resistant than vitamin C, and can counteract a series of diseases. For example, in the case of type-2 diabetes, it is capable of improving the insulin sensitivity level. Furthermore, it is an important protection factor for heart cells and the brain. In addition, the improved activity of the mitochondria by means of PQQ could be considered helpful in preventing cancer.
The main sources of this water-soluble vitamin include certain fruits, such as papaya and kiwi, but also various tees, green vegetables, milk, (in particular breast milk), and certain meat products. However, the largest amount of PQQ can be found in fermented soy; the traditional Japanese food natto. Since the concentration of this vitamin is often too smallin food products, supplying it by means of dietary supplements is recommended.
Even today, the mystery of the exact effect mechanism of PQQ has not been completely solved. However, it is certain that PQQ is of immense significance as a cofactor in various reduction and oxidation reactions. Thereby, it could be proven that this substance, similar to the NAD / NADH system, can absorb electrons and release them again. In the mitochondria in particular, the released energy by means of the reconversion of PQQ-H2 into PQQ with the aid of the respiratory chain enzyme can be used in order to form energy-carrying ATP from ADP. In addition to this mechanism, scientists assume that PQQ is involved in more than 20,000 catalytic processes. If you compare this with the only four known processes that vitamin C is involved in, the possible importance of this newly-discovered vitamin is quite evident. Independent of these effect mechanisms, regions on certain genes were found to be influenced by PQQ, which appeared to regulate the gene expressions related to them. This property was not only described for genes in the mitochondria, but also for genes located in the cellular cores of certain tissue, such as neurons for example. Based on the biochemical molecular structure of PQQ, it can be assumed that this vitamin is also capable of intercepting free radicals regardless of whether these are formed due to oxidative or nitrosative stress.
Have been carried out using PQQ, the majority of scientists that deal with this topic intensively assume that PQQ possesses a variety of possibilities that should be used in the field of preventive and anti-ageing medicine. In particular, the effects on the function of the mitochondria imply that the known effects of mitochondrial dysfunction can be counteracted. PQQ does not only increase the functional effectiveness of the mitochondria that are still present, but is also capable of increasing the number of intracellular mitochondria within various tissues by inducing neogenesis. At the same time, the anti-oxidative capacity of PQQ could be proven along with all related consequences, whether these were the improved possibility of regenerating tissue with pre-existing damage or the preventive protection against tissue-specific toxins. If you combine these properties with the fact that PQQ also has a protective effect on the formation of β-amyloid (Alzheimer’s), of α-synuclein (Parkinson’s) as well as on the auto-oxidation of the DJ1-gene (Parkinson’s), it can be recognised that this vitamin is of great significance within the field of neuroprotection.
Similar positive properties have also been described for the cardiovascular, the metabolic and the reproductive systems.
Even though PQQ was only discovered a short while ago, it is a fact that this vitamin is involved in a variety of physiological processes. Building upon the first experiences with supplementing PQQ, it can be assumed that even more health-promoting properties of this vitamin will be discovered in the future. On the one hand, this circumstance should be an incentive for further studies, but on the other hand, it justifies its use here and now, particularly in cases in which PQQ has rendered proven positive results
One capsule contains 10 mg BioPQQ™ Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt in pharmaceutical grade.
Other ingredients: rice flour, magnesium stearate.
In normal cases take 1 capsule in the morning with plenty of fluid. If required, the dosage can be increased to 2 capsules.
Currently there are no side effects of BioPQQ™ known.
Store in a cool, dry place and keep out of reach of children. Pregnant or lactating women or persons who are under constant medical care should consult a doctor before use.